The Kidnapped Countess

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Denbigh Castle

The story of Alice de Lacey is like something straight from a novel, with rebellion, kidnappings and love all wrapped up in the life of this one was born Countess. Alice was born at Denbigh Castle on 25th December 1281. She was the daughter of Henry de Lacey, 5th Earl of Lincoln and, through her mother Margaret, granddaughter of William (II) Longspee, Earl of Salisbury.

Alice was one of 3 children. With 2 brothers, Edmund and John, she was, of course, not  expected to inherit her father’s earldom. However, 2 family tragedies made Alice one of the richest heiresses in England. Young Edmund, it appears, drowned in a well at Denbigh Castle and John fell to his death from the parapet at Pontefract Castle, leaving Alice as her parents’ sole heir.

In 1294 Alice’s marriage was arranged by no-less than the king – Edward I – who saw her as a suitable bride for his nephew Thomas, Earl of Lancaster and son of the king’s brother Edmund Crouchback. Alice and Thomas were married on or before 28th October 1294; he was about 16 years old and Alice was not yet 13.

Edward I had shown his unscrupulous nature in the marriage settlement in that Thomas was given part of the Lacey inheritance on the marriage, with the rest to pass to Thomas on Henry de Lacey’s death. The settlement further stipulated that the de Lacey lands would pass to Lancaster in the event of Alice’s dying without issue; thus excluding all collateral heirs to the earldoms of Salisbury and Lincoln.

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Seal of Henry de Lacey

Alice’s mother Margaret, Countess of Salisbury in her own right, died in 1309 and by June 1310 her father had remarried; probably in the hope of securing an heir for his earldom. In the event, it wasn’t to be and the Earl of Lincoln died in 1311, with his estates passing through his daughter, to Thomas Earl of Lancaster and Leicester.

With 5 earldoms to his name, Thomas now became one of the richest and most powerful men in the kingdom. Although he was initially a supporter of the new king, his cousin Edward II, he would soon turn against him and his favourites, making enemies along the way.

Poor Alice got caught in the middle of one of Thomas’s feuds.

According to the chronicler Walsingham: “The Countess of Lancaster … was seized at Canford, in Dorset, by a certain knight of the house and family of john, Earl Warenne, with many English retainers called together for the detestable deed, as it is said, with the royal assent. … With them was a certain man of a miserable stature, lame and hunchbacked, called Richard de St Martin, exhibiting and declaring constantly his evil intentions towards the lady, so miserably led away.

Alice was kidnapped in 1317 from her manor in Canford, Dorset, by John de Warenne’s man, Sir Richard de St Martin, supposedly with the king’s knowledge. Several reasons for the abduction have been put forward; one is, of course, that Alice and St Martin were having an affair while another is that the affair was between Alice and John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, himself.

Given the king’s involvement, a more likely explanation is that the kidnapping was organised by de Warenne in retaliation for Lancaster’s objections to de Warenne’s attempts to divorce his wife, Joan of Bar, in 1315/16. Joan was a cousin of Thomas of Lancaster and niece of King Edward II, but her marriage to John de Warenne was a disaster and John openly lived with his mistress, Maud Nerford. When he attempted to divorce Joan, Lancaster was one of his most vocal opponents; the divorce was eventually refused and de Warenne was even excommunicated for a time.

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Arms of Thomas and his father as Earls of Lancaster and Leicester

Alice was held at Reigate Castle, Surrey. Her abduction set off a private war between the 2 magnates, with Lancaster targeting Warenne’s Yorkshire estates and successfully besieging the Earl’s castle at Conisbrough in retaliation. Although he seems to have made little effort to actually rescue his wife and there is no record of how and when she was eventually released.

Alice and Thomas’s marriage does not appear to have been a happy one and there is some evidence that they were actually divorced in 1318, with Thomas retaining Alice’s earldoms after enforcing the marriage contract. The divorce was supposedly on account of her adultery with the Earl of Surrey’s squire, Sir Eubolo Lestrange (although this may be a confusion of facts from her abduction and her later marriage). It has also been claimed that Alice and her abductor, Richard de St Martin, were pre-contracted before her marriage to Thomas of Lancaster. However, although this is not impossible, it does seem unlikely, given Alice’s tender age on her wedding day.

Whether or not Alice and Thomas did divorce is still open to debate. If the divorce occurred, it did not protect her from the reprisals meted out after her husband’s failed rebellion and defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge on 16th March 1322. While Thomas was executed Alice, along with her step-mother, Joan, was imprisoned in York Castle.

It must have been a truly terrifying time for the 2 women; with no protectors they were at the mercy of the king’s favourites, the Despensers, father and son. Threatened with execution by burning they were forced to turn over the majority of their estates. Having paid an enormous ransom of £20,000 Alice was finally released, securing her titles, a small number of estates and the right to remarry.

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Lincoln Castle

Her step-mother, Joan, died in October 1322; we can only surmise as to whether or not her demise was as a consequence of her imprisonment.

Alice would eventually recover Lincoln Castle and the Earldom of Lincoln, but many of her estates were given to her erstwhile abductor, John de Warenne, and only returned to her by Edward III, many years later.

By November 1324 Alice had married again, this time to a minor baron from the Welsh Marches, Sir Ebule, or Eubolo, Lestrange of Shropshire. The  marriage demonstrated that Alice had managed to come out of the disaster of her first husband’s downfall with enough income and  property to make her an attractive proposition as a wife. Although, it does seem possible that this marriage was a love-match.

This marriage appears to have been a happier one, given that Lestrange moved over to Lincolnshire to look after his wife’s interests, and that it was with Sir Eubolo that Alice chose to be buried, when the time came. Alice and Sir Eubolo were married for over 10 years, although towards the latter part Lestrange was away campaigning in Scotland, where he died in September 1335. Alice was named as one of his executors and he was buried in Barlings Abbey, Lincolnshire.

Following his death, Alice took a vow of chastity and looked determined to settle into a life of quiet retirement. However, her adventures were not quite at an end. In 1335, or early 1336, Alice was kidnapped for a 2nd time; she was abducted from her castle at Bolingbroke and raped, by Sir Hugh de Freyne. Freyne was a Herefordshire knight and royal keeper of the town and castle of Cardigan.

There appears some suggestion that Alice was in collusion with Sir Hugh, the abduction being a way for her to escape her vow of chastity. Edward III was furious and ordered their imprisonment, but the couple were reconciled with the king 1336 and were allowed to marry. The marriage did much to improve Freyne’s status and brought him a summons to Parliament in November 1336.

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Barlings Abbey

However, such success was short-lived as he died at Perth in December 1336 or January 1337.

Shortly after her 3rd husband’s death, the Bishop of Lincoln issued a demand that Alice keep her prior vow and chastity. As there were no further marriages – or abductions – we can probably assume that she did. Alice died on the 2nd October 1348 at the grand age of 66. She was buried with her 2nd husband at the Premonstratensian House of Barlings, in Lincolnshire.

Having had no children from any of her 3 marriages, Alice’s lands and titles, as according to her marriage settlement 54 years earlier, passed to the house of Lancaster and her husband’s nephew, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and father of Blanche of Lancaster, John of Gaunt’s 1st wife.

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Pictures courtesy of Wikipedia, except Lincoln Castle © 2015 Sharon Bennett Connolly.

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Sources: The Oxford Companion to British History Edited by John Cannon; The Plantagenets, the Kings who Made England by Dan Jones; History Today Companion to British History Edited by Juliet Gardiner and Neil Wenborn;  Brewer’s British Royalty by David Williamson; Britain’s Royal Families, the Complete Genealogy by Alison Weir; Conisbrough Castle by Steven Brindle and Agnieszka Sadraei; The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens by Mike Ashley; The Plantagenets, the Kings that made Britain by Derek Wilson;  findagrave.com; oxforddnb.com; royaldescent.net.

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My book, Heroines of the Medieval World,  is now available in hardback in the UK from both Amberley Publishing and Amazon UK and worldwide from Book Depository. It is also available on Kindle in both the UK and USA and will be available in Hardback from Amazon US from 1 May 2018.

Sharons book cover

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©2016 Sharon Bennett Connolly

Book Corner: The Dead Gods

51cTI5WlWsL._SX322_BO1,204,203,200_Over on The Review blog!

Read my review of Robert Bayliss‘s The Dead Gods: Flint & Steel, Fire & Shadow 2.

“After encountering the dark god of Acaross, the Taleeli Commander Kaziviere finds himself transported into the heart of that shadowy realm. Perplexed by the Commander’s disappearance the Sun Shard wielder Tuan, his comrade Bronic, Klesh the Flinter and Kaziviere’s lover Tamzine, embark on a quest to find him.


As war between Acaross and Taleel draws ever nearer Kaziviere discovers the horrific nature of the Messiah of Shadows and his monstrous children, The Dead Gods.”

The Dead Gods: Flint & Steel, Fire & Shadow 2 is a beautiful tale of the fantasy genre, with an atmosphere straight out of the medieval world. I am very much a fan of historical fiction, or modern-day archaeological thrillers. Fantasy is a whole new genre for me, so I had no idea what to expect when I opened the cover of The Dead Gods. It was a complete surprise to me – and a very pleasant one. It took me way out of my reading comfort zone and yet had me enthralled from the first page.

The Dead Gods is the second book in the Flint & Steel, Fire & Shadow book series,but you wouldn’t know it. From the beginning the book works well as a standalone, with the events of the first book revealed as memories in the thoughts of the main protagonists in a way that is subtle and not overwhelming. Ingeniously, the author makes the past all a part of the present. The back story is introduced as I go along, when it is needed to explain a person or event, rather than in huge lumps that take you away from the actual story.

Robert Bayliss cleverly draws on aspects of various eras to create a fantasy world of magic, myth and adventure. Every detail is intricately woven in an amalgamation of the medieval, early modern, and the supernatural. Packed full of action, suspense and mystery – and some suitably demonic bad guys; the story moves rapidly, leaving you few moments to take a breath – or even let out the breath you weren’t aware you’d been holding for at least the last two pages!

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Fortress of Tiers

The narrative is wonderfully descriptive, the language evocative:

There was a hammering at the door and a voice demanded from the other side, “Dogel! We heard a noise, is anything ill?”
“Wait,” Kaziviere said. “We will need supplies and clothes.”
The girl grinned. “you don’t like what you see?” she said, facing the gladiator in her nakedness. “there is no time, savage!” she hissed. “If you want to live, jump!” She launched herself from the window and was gone.
Behind him he heard the door being tentatively opened. On the floor the dogel gasped, his eyes looking wildly around from his battered face.
“Tamzine!” Kaziviere said, casting his spell of hope into the world. 

The lead character are wonderful creations, with their own powers to enthrall the reader. Braebec, Kaziviere, Tuan and Tamzine are heroes of the highest caliber. Each has his, or her, own strengths and weaknesses; confronting enemies head-on, while maintaining their humanity at some considerable cost. They fight to the bitter end and prove themselves worthy of the time you’ve invested in getting to know them.

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Princess Karla

The villains are superbly nasty and supernatural, to the point of making you subconsciously cringe as you read about them (although only occasionally). They attract the worst of humanity to their cause.

The contrast between the human heroes and the other-worldly villains provides a brilliant contrast for the reader, making it easy to root for the heroes. We are also introduced to characters our heroes meet along the way, who act as foils and distraction to the bad guys – and the heroes. People such as the alluring Princess Karla and her father, the Khan, have their own agendas that could divert our heroes from their purpose.

To be honest, my review can’t ever do this book justice. It fascinates and enthralls as it entertains. In short, you will have to read it to believe it. But beware, once it has you in its grip, you will be absorbed into this strange world until the very last page. And it will leave you desperate to read the next installment ….

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My book, Heroines of the Medieval World,  is now available in hardback in the UK from both Amberley Publishing and Amazon UK and worldwide from Book Depository. It is also available on Kindle in both the UK and USA and will be available in Hardback from Amazon US from 1 May 2018.

Be the first to read new articles by clicking the ‘Follow’ button, liking our Facebook page or joining me on Twitter.

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Pictures © Robert Bayliss

Book corner: Interview with author Matthew Harffy

Earlier this week I had the opportunity to ask author Matthew Harffy a few questions.

Matthew’s latest book in his Bernicia Chronicles series, The Cross and the Curse, is out today. If it’s anything like his debut novel, The Serpent Sword, it will be a real page-turner.

The Romans are gone and largely forgotten, and the idea of a united England is 200 years in the future. 7th century England is a time of small, disparate kingdoms fighting for supremacy, a time when a skilled warrior can make a name for himself.

The Bernicia chronicles follow Beobrand, a young warrior, barely out of childhood, trying to find his own place in the world. Beobrand finds enemies, adventure and friendship while learning to fight and overcome his own personal losses. And amidst all this he is searching for his brother’s killer and vengeance.

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Matthew Harffy’s new novel, The Cross & The Curse

Matthew was kind enough to answer my queries, about his books, writing in general and it’s highs and lows.

1. What made you start writing?

I’ve always been creative and been involved in different artistic projects. I’ve sung in bands, painted and drawn, and studied performing arts. Being an avid reader, writing was an obvious thing to try at some stage. I started writing stories many times over the years but I always quickly ran out of patience and/or inspiration. The Serpent Sword was the first story I ever finished writing.

2. Who are your major writing influences?

There are so many, but a few of my favourite authors are David Gemmell, Bernard Cornwell, Larry McMurtry and Patrick O’Brian. More recently I’ve discovered lots of new authors, including Justin Hill and Robert Lautner, both of whom have produced excellent novels that inspired me.

3. What first got you interested in writing historical fiction?

I used to read a lot of fantasy and also played fantasy role playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. When I started writing The Serpent Sword, historical fiction just seemed a better fit. The early medieval period gave me a heroic age where people believed in gods, monsters and magic, but it was firmly grounded in historical fact. It felt more grown up perhaps.

I also read some best-sellers in the genre and thought – “I could do that”!

4. What attracted you to writing about the 7th century?

It was more the area of Northumbria than the era at first. I lived in Northumberland as a child for a few years and loved the place, with its castles perched atop rocky cliffs overlooking the slate-grey North Sea.

In 2001 I saw a documentary on TV about 7th century Anglo-Saxon graves being excavated at Bamburgh Castle. Something clicked and I started writing that night. After that I did research and realised what an interesting and important period the 7th century was for Northumbria and Britain as a whole.

5. What comes first, the storyline or the research?

When starting a new project, I do some background reading and find some interesting historical events that I think I could plot a story around. I then work out how to get my characters’ lives to intertwine with the real events.

6. Which do you find easiest to develop, the plot or the characters?

I think the plot is easier to develop. It is just like a jigsaw puzzle and you need to move the pieces until they click into place.

The character develop a little bit haphazardly as the plot progresses. The plot drives the narration for me, and the characters develop within that framework.

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Matthew Harffy

7. What made you choose your central characters? From where do you get the inspiration for them?

I honestly have no idea for most of them! I need a character to fit the plot so just start writing and then, as time progresses, they get richer and more detailed. Sometimes I need to go back and add details earlier on in the storylines where I wrote them with less complexity than they ended up with. Some writers know all about their characters before they write a word. I don’t! One character in The Cross and the Curse, Anhaga, appeared as a “walk on” part, just a person for a major character to interact with in one scene. But then, something happened and he became one of the most important characters in the novel!

8. Who do you think is your best character? Who is your personal favourite? And why?

Wow – how can I answer that? I like them all, of course! Beobrand is the protagonist, so I probably know most about him and he is in most scenes of the novels. However, it is often more fun to write some of the less central characters.

I particularly like the more recent character of Reaghan, who does not appear in The Serpent Sword. I’m not sure why, but writing the female characters is pretty fun. I am married and have two daughters, so I find it cathartic to put myself in their heads for a time and try to see the world through a woman’s eyes.

9. Do you know how the book is going to end when you start it?

Broadly speaking yes. Perhaps not when I write the first lines of the book, but before I get too far into the narrative, I break down the plot into chapters and each chapter into scenes. I stick roughly to this structure and I write from beginning to end, without skipping any sections. So I write in the same order that the reader will read it. Of course, I know where it is headed, but I think this helps me get a feel for how the story plays out.

10. How do you approach your writing day?

I don’t have a “writing day”! I have “writing hours”. These are one or two hour slots of time that I can dedicate to writing. In those moments, wherever I am, be it a coffee shop, the library, a train, a hotel room, a bench in a hall while my daughter practices Taekwondo, a plane, or my parked car (all places I have written), I put headphones on, read the last scene I wrote to get in the mood and then write as much as I can. I normally write about five or six hundred words in an hour. Something like that. Once I have finished the whole novel draft, then, and only then, do I read the whole book.

Then the editing commences!

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Matthew Harffy’s debut novel, The Serpent Sword

11. If Ridley Scott was to approach you to make a film of your books, who would you want to play Beobrand?

From all I’ve heard of Hollywood, I’d have no say in the matter (Tom Cruise as Jack Reacher, anyone?!). I would like it to be someone who was large enough and strong enough to be believable, but with a brooding intensity and presence that would draw others to his side.

Perhaps your readers could suggest some actors in the comments!

12. Have you ever changed your mind about killing off a character?

No. They die when their time is up! It is as simple as that. I don’t really choose for them to be killed, it is just what the story demands.

13. What comes next? Do you have more books planned in the Bernicia Chronicles?

Yes! The follow up to The Serpent Sword – The Cross and the Curse – will be published on 22nd January 2016.

Book three of the Bernicia Chronicles, By Blood and Blade, is already written and is due for release later this year.

I am currently working on a novella, a standalone prequel to the Bernicia Chronicles, called Kin of Cain. That should be published this year too.

Then I’ll move on to book four of the Bernicia Chronicles (as yet untitled). That should be ready in 2017. I have plenty more stories to tell, so if people keep buying them, I’ll keep writing them!

14. Which other periods of history would you like to write about?

I’m interesting in many periods, but the 19th century is a time I would most like to write about. Perhaps set in the American West, as I love westerns.

15. What is the best thing about writing? And what’s the worst?

The best thing about writing is getting to tell stories and find that others actually enjoy them! Hearing from readers is the best thing, and reviews on Amazon and other sites actually help sell more books, so that’s an added bonus!

The worst thing is that it takes so bloody long to write a book! And by definition all of that time is spent on your own with no feedback, so you have to trust that you are writing something that others will want to read.

Thank you for the great questions and for the opportunity to spend some time with you today on your awesome blog.

Thank you very much to Matthew Harffy for taking the time to answer my questions.

The Serpent Sword is already available now and well worth the read. It’s a wonderful novel, full of excitement and adventure. The Cross and the Curse is available from Friday 22nd January 2016.

To find out more about Matthew Harffy you can his Facebook and Twitter pages, and his own website. Click on the book titles to buy The Serpent Sword and The Cross and The Curse.

I’d like to extend a huge thank you to Matthew for such a wonderful interview and wish him every success with his new novel.

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My book, Heroines of the Medieval World,  is now available in hardback in the UK from both Amberley Publishing and Amazon UK and worldwide from Book Depository. It is also available on Kindle in both the UK and USA and will be available in Hardback from Amazon US from 1 May 2018.

Be the first to read new articles by clicking the ‘Follow’ button, liking our Facebook page or joining me on Twitter.

©2016 Sharon Bennett Connolly

Jeanne II, Tainted Queen

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The family tree of Louis X

In 1312 a baby girl was born into the French royal family. Although some sources say she was born as early as 1309 or 1311, most seem to settle on January 1312. According to Isabella of France’s biographer, Kathryn Warner, the news was delivered to Edward II and Queen Isabella by Jeannot de Samoys, usher to Margaret of Burgundy, in March 1312, with the baby having been born on 28th January of that year.

Jeanne de France was to be the only surviving child of her parents, Louis of France and Margaret of Burgundy. Louis had become King of Navarre on the death of his mother in 1305 and was married to Margaret later in the same year, when Louis was 16 years old and Margaret was about 15.

Louis was Dauphin of France, the eldest of 3 surviving sons of Philip IV le Bel, king of France and Navarre, and of Jeanne I, queen of France and de jure queen of Navarre. Louis’ sister, Isabella, married Edward II of England. His brothers, Philip and Charles, were married to 2 sisters, Blanche and Joan of Burgundy, who were also cousins to Margaret, being the daughters of her uncle Otto IV, Count of Burgundy.

In 1314 a scandal rocked the French monarchy to its very core, leaving a question mark over Jeanne’s legitimacy that is still there today. The Tour de Neslé Affair saw 2-year-old Jeanne’s mother, Margaret, convicted of adultery, and imprisoned in the Chateau-Gaillard for the rest of her life. Margaret’s cousin and sister-in-law, Blanche, was convicted alongside her. Although Blanche’s sister, Joan, with the support of her husband Philip,  was cleared of the charges, she was held under house arrest for a short time as it was believed she knew of the adulterous liaisons of her sisters-in-law.

The 2 knights in question, the D’Aunay brothers, were tortured and castrated before being brutally executed by being ‘broken on the wheel’ and decapitated.

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Margaret of Burgundy, Jeanne’s mother

How much Jeanne would have known of these events is uncertain. Hopefully she was shielded from events in the royal nursery, but it  is not inconceivable that she was treated differently after the discovery of her mother’s adultery. Margaret’s betrayal meant Jeanne’s legitimacy was now in question.

However, events were to change again within in months. In November, 1314, Jeanne’s grandfather Philip IV died and her father succeeded to the French throne as King Louis X. Louis was now desperate to produce a male heir and with the papacy dragging its heels on his divorce from Jeanne’s mother, it’s possible he took matters into his own hands. Whether it was from natural causes after her rough treatment – or, more likely, strangulation on Louis’ orders – Margaret died shortly after Louis’ accession.

Louis then married Clementia of Hungary and the couple were crowned jointly at Reims in August 1315. Nothing is recorded of  the relationship between Jeanne and her stepmother, or of how Jeanne’s status changed as the daughter of the King. However, doubts over Jeanne’s legitimacy must still have been at the forefront of people’s minds as Louis X, on his deathbed in June 1316, made a point of  stating that Jeanne was his legitimate daughter. Clementia was pregnant at the time of Louis’ death, after a particularly strenuous game of tennis; their son John the Posthumous was born 5 months later and died just 5 days after that, causing a succession crisis.

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Louis X, Jeanne’s father

In most countries, Jeanne would automatically have become queen regnant on the death of her baby brother. However, her uncle Philip argued that French Salic Law, which determined the inheritance of French property and which stated that females could not inherit, also extended to the crown of France. Fearing the accession of a weak and feeble woman, the French nobles readily agreed.

Salic Law, however, did not extend to Navarre and Jeanne’s maternal grandmother Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, and maternal uncle Odo IV, Count of Burgundy, tried to press Jeanne’s claims to the crown of Navarre, but were unsuccessful. In 1318 Odo came to an agreement with Philip that, should he have no male heirs, the counties of Champagne and Brie would go to Jeanne, while Jeanne would relinquish her claims to the thrones of France and Navarre – and would swear to this once she reached her majority, probably at the age of 12.

In the same agreement Odo was to marry Philip V’s daughter, Joan, and Jeanne would marry her cousin, Philip d’Evreux. Philip was the grandson of Philip III of France and his 2nd wife, Marie of Brabant; he was the son of Louis d’Evreux, half-brother of Jeanne’s grandfather, Philip IV.

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Philip III of Navarre, Jeanne’s husband

At just 6 years old Jeanne was married to 12-year-old Philip on 18th June 1318. She was then given into the care of Philip’s grandmother, the dowager queen Marie of Brabant, to continue her education.

There’s no evidence that Jeanne did relinquish her claims to the thrones of France and Navarre on her 12th birthday and the situation changed, again, when Philip V died in 1322 and was succeeded by his brother, Charles IV. A succession crisis arose yet again when Charles himself died on 1st February 1328, leaving France with a regency once more, until his pregnant wife, Jeanne d’Evreux, was delivered of a daughter, Blanche, on 1st April 1328.

This left Jeanne as the senior claimant to the French and Navarrese thrones. However, with Salic Law still in place, the French crown was offered to Philip of Valois, a descendant  of Philip III, who acceded to the throne as Philip VI. Philip, however, had no claim to the crown of Navarre as it had come to the French crown through the marriage of Philip IV with Queen Jeanne I of Navarre.

Not subject to Salic Law, therefore, and after the extinction of the male line, the crown of Navarre finally came to Jeanne, her inheritance was publicly acknowledged by the new king of France. The general assembly of Navarre proclaimed Jeanne as queen in May 1328, with a stipulation that Philip would reign jointly with her, but only until their eldest son attained his majority.

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Jeanne II, Queen of Navarre

After years in the shadows and aged just 17, Jeanne and her husband were crowned jointly, as King Philip III and Queen Jeanne II of Navarre, at Pamplona on 5th March 1329. Several property agreements with the French crown left Jeanne and Philip with extensive lands in Normandy, Champagne and Philip’s county of Evreux, as well as their kingdom of Navarre.

Their marriage also appears to have been successful, with at least 7 children being born between 1326 and 1341, 3 of which were boys. Their eldest child, Maria, became the 1st wife of Peter IV of Aragon; while the next eldest, Blanche, born in 1330, was betrothed to John of France before marrying his father, Philip VI – who was 40 years her senior – in 1349, just months after her mother’s death.

Of their other daughters Agnes, born in the mid-1330s, married Gaston, Count of Foix. According to Froissart Gaston accidentally killed their only son, another Gaston, during a quarrel. Jeanne’s youngest daughter, Joan, was born in 1339 and would marry John II Viscount Rohan.

Some sources mention another daughter, Joan, born around 1324, who would become a nun at Longchamp. However, it seems highly likely that Joan was an illegitimate daughter of Philip d’Evreux, rather than the eldest daughter  of the Philip and Jeanne.

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Charles II of Navarre

Jeanne and Philip’s eldest son and heir, Charles II the Bad, was born in 1330 and married Joan, daughter of John II of France. Charles was implicated in the assassination of the Constable of France, Charles de la Cerda, and intrigued with the English, against the French, during the Hundred Years’ War. He even escaped from imprisonment in Chateau-Gaillard, but was ultimately defeated by the French, who allowed him to remain as King of Navarre.

A son, Philip, Count of Longueville was born in 1336 and married Yolande of Flanders. While their youngest son, Louis, was born in 1341 and would become Duke of Durazzo in Albania by right of his wife, Joanna.

Jeanne and Philip shared their time between all their lands, with French governors installed to rule Navarre during their absences. As rulers of Navarre, Jeanne and Philip had active legislation and building programmes and tried to maintain peaceful relations with neighbouring states. As a couple they appear to have worked closely together, more than 41 decrees were issued jointly in their names.

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Rue St Jacques, site of the Couvent des Jacobins

Philip died in 1343, aged 37, whilst on Crusade against the Muslim Kingdom of Granada in Spain. He was mortally wounded by an arrow during the Siege of Algeciras and died shortly after. His body was returned to Pamplona for burial, while his heart was taken to Paris and interred at the Couvent des Jacobins.

From then on Jeanne ruled alone, dying of the plague on 6th October 1349 at the Chateau de Conflans. She was just months short of her 38th birthday, having ruled Navarre for 21 of her 38 years. Jeanne was buried in the royal Basilica of St Denis but her heart was laid to rest beside her husband’s in the Couvent des Jacobins, the taint of bastardy no longer an issue.

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My book, Heroines of the Medieval World,  is now available in hardback in the UK from both Amberley Publishing and Amazon UK and worldwide from Book Depository. It is also available on Kindle in both the UK and USA and will be available in Hardback from Amazon US from 1 May 2018.

Sharons book cover

Be the first to read new articles by clicking the ‘Follow’ button, liking our Facebook page or joining me on Twitter.

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Pictures taken from Wikipedia.

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Thanks to Kathryn Warner for her extra information regarding Jeanne’s date of birth.

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Sources: The Course of French History by Pierre Goubert; Isabella and the Strange Death of Edward II by Paul Doherty; Isabella of France: The Rebel Queen by Kathryn Warner; The Waning of the Middle Ages by J Huizinga; Medieval Europe 400-1500 by H.G. Koenigsberger; passion-histoire.net; maison-hantee.com; herodote.net; histoire-france.net; A history of France from the Earliest Times to the Treaty of Versailles by William Stearns Davis; History of France by Charlotte Mary Yonge; Histoireeurope.fr.

©2015 Sharon Bennett Connolly

Book Corner: The Pawns of Sion

715UoPpSVSLOver on The Review blog!

Read my review of Scott R. Rezer‘s The Pawns of Sion.

“At first glance The Pawns of Sion looks like a straightforward story about the politics and rivalries of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. But once you start reading, you discover the novel delves deeper than you’d ever thought possible. Scott R. Rezer has created a story which merges two realms, that of man and that of the angels. The war between Salehdin and the Christians runs parallel with the greater, age-old battle of good versus evil. The author has cleverly interwoven the two realms in a deep, intense book. The plot is detailed and unveiled in layers the deeper into the book you get.

Set in the years immediately before the Third Crusade, the action moves fast and furious from the death of King Baldwin V, through the behind-the-scenes manipulations of the Order of Sion and the Magdalen’s attempts to stop them, while Salehdin takes advantage of the deep divisions revealed among the Christian lords. And underlying it all is the centuries-long search for the Holy Grail….”

I found The Pawns of Sion both fascinating and intriguing. It looks deeper into the origins of Christianity than other Crusader novels and the age-old battle of good against evil mirrors the irreconcilable differences of the Christian and Muslim combatants. There is the occasional missing word in the text, but this does not detract from the overall enjoyment of the book. The author knows how to evoke the reader’s sympathy – or distaste – for particular characters. You find yourself rooting for the good guys.

The full depth of the story is slowly  revealed – each revelation releasing a new feature of the plot. And as each new secret is disclosed, it adds a little explanation to the motives and desires of the protagonists.

The language is, at times, haunting, drawing aside the veils between the realm of the natural world and that of the spiritual, giving the reader a sense of the surreal:

….Her magic shrank from the shadow of his evil rather than endure its touch.
“Did you think you could defeat me with so little a thing as the death of your beloved daughter?”
“You have no place here, Simon,” she hissed, ignoring his taunt. She drew a thin silver blade from the belt beneath her cloak. The rasping sound of metal upon metal overwhelmed the silence of the wood. “You never have.”
“Your words wound me, Mariamne,” said Amalric de Lusignan. “Why must we continually bicker when we might become friends?”
She walked towards him, sword on shoulder, shedding her immortal glamour and taking on a semblance men knew….

330px-SangrealAs with many people, the Knights Templar have always held me in awe and although they are not the heroes of the story, their Grand Master Gerard de Ridefort is one of the leading characters. The author makes good use of the known protagonists of the time, weaving his story around their lives and the events that shaped the Holy Land and its politics at the time. Each character is imbued with the qualities passed down by history.

Balian d’Ibelin is the good, noble knight, whose integrity is beyond question. Guion (Guy) de Lusignan is the weak, easily manipulated, indecisive king, while his wife, Sybilla, is the pawn he uses to gain power. Then there’s the young Ernoul, a fictional character who struggles to come to terms with his destiny. The historical characters are intermingled with the fictional ones, allowing the writer to create his own story within the historical record.

The characters are brought to life in the hot, arid backdrop of the Holy Land in the second half of 12th century. The author has recreated the Medieval Near East vividly, cleverly evincing the heat, the dust and the thirst, in the reader’s mind.

Although I found the duality of the story confusing at first, it didn’t take me long to find myself totally immersed in the concept, and in the general story itself. I like the depth of the story; the first few chapters reveal a complexity to the politics and religion of the Holy Land of the time. Individual stories are expertly woven together to make one great tapestry; a tapestry depicting the disasters befalling Outremer which would eventually lead to the launch of the Third Crusade. And behind it all are the origins of Christianity itself, the fight for good against evil and the search for the greatest relic, the Holy Grail.

It’s going to be very interesting, to see how this story continues in Book 3.

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My book, Heroines of the Medieval World,  is now available in hardback in the UK from both Amberley Publishing and Amazon UK and worldwide from Book Depository. It is also available on Kindle in both the UK and USA and will be available in Hardback from Amazon US from 1 May 2018.

Be the first to read new articles by clicking the ‘Follow’ button, liking our Facebook page or joining me on Twitter.

©2016 Sharon Bennett Connolly

Joan of Bar: Abandoned Wife

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Arms of the County of Bar

You would think that a man who was given a king’s granddaughter as a wife would relish the glamour and connections such a bride brought. However, this was not always the case and nowhere is it more obvious than in the life and marriage of Joan of Bar.

Joan was the granddaughter of the mighty Edward I and his queen, Eleanor of Castile. Her mother was Eleanor, Edward and Eleanor’s eldest surviving child. Eleanor of England had been born in 1264 and was first married to Alfonso III, King of Aragon, by proxy on 15th August 1290 at Westminster Abbey.

However the groom died before the marriage could be consummated and Eleanor married again at Bristol on 20th September 1293, to Henry III, Count of Bar. Henry and Eleanor had at least 2 children together. Their son, Edward, and daughter, Joan, were born in successive years, in 1294 and 1295. Although there seems to be some confusion of who was the oldest. A possible 3rd child, Eleanor, is said to have married Llywelyn ap Owen of Deheubarth; but her actual existence seems to be in question.

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Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar

As usual with Medieval women – even royal ones – we  know very little of Joan’s childhood. Her mother died in Ghent in 1298 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London. Joan’s father, the Count of Bar, died in 1302, sources say as a result of injuries received in battle while fighting in Sicily.

The count was succeeded by his only son, Edward, who was then only 6 or 7 years old. The county of Bar was run by his grandfather, Edward I, during young Edward’s minority, with the child’s uncle John of Puisaye and the bishops of Liege and Metz acting as governors. It’s possible the children came to live at the English court, or at least spent some time there.

By 1310 Edward’s majority was declared. He married Mary, daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy, in the same year. By this time, young Joan had already been married 4 years. In 1306 Joan had returned to England, arriving on 13th April. Barely 10 years old, she was escorted to the palace at Westminster with great pomp.

During the parliament of 1306 Edward I had settled Joan’s future. On 15th May of that year Edward offered Joan’s hand in marriage to 20-year-old John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey, who had recently been granted his grandfather’s lands, despite the fact he wasn’t yet 21.

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Henry III Count of Bar

John was not without royal connections himself. His aunt, Isabella had been married to Scots King John Balliol, and their son, John’s cousin, was Edward Balliol, sometime King of Scots and John’s ward. John was the grandson of Edward’s good friend, also named John de Warenne, the 6th Earl of Surrey and former Warden of Scotland. Young John’s father, William de Warenne, had died in a tournament within a year of John’s birth and so he was raised by his grandfather, until John Senior’s death in 1304.

In the week following the betrothal of John and Joan, Edward I held a magnificent ceremony for the knighting of his eldest son, Edward. The ceremony was also to include the knighting of almost 300 men, John de Warenne included. As the celebrations continued a number of weddings also took place, involving several barons and nobles.

John de Warenne and Joan of Bar were married on 25th May, with John’s sister, Alice, marrying Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel, at about the same time. Edmund had been a ward of John’s grandfather. The 2 young men were very close in age and were political allies and friends.

Following the wedding the couple lived on the Warenne Yorkshire estates, sharing their time between their castles at Conisbrough and Sandal.

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Sandal Castle

In the wider world, Edward I died in the summer of 1307 and was succeeded by his son, Edward II. Initially John de Warenne was a supporter of Edward; witnessing the charter which made Edward’s favourite, Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall and accompanying the king to France to claim his bride, Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of France.

However, John was not immune to the turbulence and distrust of Edward’s reign and changed sides several times in the arguments between the king and his barons. The uncertainty of Edward’s reign cannot have helped the marriage of John and Joan, but neither, it seems, did John.

The couple was soon estranged – Joan was half John’s age when they married, which must have put an incredible strain on the relationship. There had been indications of problems as early as 1309, when the king had given John permission to name whoever he wished as his heir, as long as any children he may have by Joan were not disinherited.

By 1313 the marriage was still childless, and blatantly unhappy. In the spring of that year, Edward sent his yeoman, William Aune, to bring Joan to the king. She was taken from Warenne’s castle at Conisbrough and lodged in the Tower of London, at the king’s expense.

John, on the other hand, was living openly with his mistress, Maud Nereford, for which he was threatened with excommunication in May; a sentence which was finally carried out by the bishop of Chichester when Edward’s attempts to prevent it failed.

ConisbroughCastle
Conisbrough Castle

A long legal battle followed, eager to marry Maud and legitimise his 2 sons by her, John attempted to dissolve his marriage to Joan on the grounds of consanguinity – they were related in the 3rd and 4th degrees. He also claimed that he was pressured into marrying Joan against his will. Maud added her own suit to the legal proceeding by claiming that John had contracted to marry her before his marriage to Joan.

The church council registered disapproval of John and Maud’s relationship; as did a council of nobles which included the king’s cousin and most powerful nobleman in the land, Thomas of Lancaster. John had even been Thomas’s retainer in the early years of the king’s reign, but relations had soured following the murder of Gaveston in 1312.

The case would drag on for 2 years, with John unable to find a friendly ecclesiastical court who would pronounce in his favour.  In 1316 he agreed to pay Joan a sum of £200 annually while the suit was ongoing, and to provide Joan with lands worth 740 marks once the marriage was dissolved.

As the hopes of an annulment faded, John enlisted the help of the earl of Pembroke in presenting a petition to the pope seeking an annulment. John also rearranged his estates, surrendering them to the  king to have them re-granted with specifications that some of the lands could pass to his sons be Maud Nereford on his death. In the mean time, in August 1316, Joan had left England for France.

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Arms of the de Warenne Earls of Surrey

While the troubles in England intensified, John’s marriage troubles seem to have abated somewhat. The rebellion of Thomas of Lancaster was crushed at the Battle of Boroughbridge in 1322, but war simmered on with France adding to the king’s troubles by demanding he personally pay homage for his French lands. In 1325 John de Warenne was appointed captain of an English expedition to Aquitaine and was away from home for the next year.

Joan had been in France at the same time, spending some of her time with Edward II’s queen, Isabella, and eldest son Prince Edward. Some sources say that when Warenne returned to England in 1326, Joan accompanied him and they even received permission to go abroad in February 1327 – as a couple.

Following the downfall of Edward II, his son and the new king, Edward III, ingratitude for her service to his mother, Queen Isabella, settled lands on Joan for life, and granted her some of the goods forfeited by Edmund Fitzalan. John’s erstwhile brother-in-law had been caught up in the turbulence of Edward II’s downfall and executed.

John de Warenne proved a faithful servant to Edward III, acting as keeper of the realm, jointly with young prince Edward, during the king’s absences in 1338 and 1340. However, his domestic life was as unsettled as ever in the last years of his life. Joan was in his company and treated as his wife in the years between 1331 and 1337, but went abroad with her entire household in 1337 shortly after her brother’s death; Edward, Count of Bar, had died in a shipwreck on his way to the Crusades and its possible Joan was acting as regent for her nephew, Henry IV, Count of Bar.

By the 1340s Maud Nereford and her sons had predeceased him, but John had a new lover in Isabella Holland, daughter of Sir Robert Holland, a leading retainer of Thomas of Lancaster. And it seems he was again contemplating divorce. In a 1344 letter from the Bishop of Winchester charges him to hold Joan in marital affection and honour the dispensation that had been granted for his marriage.

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Clock Tower, Bar

Joan was abroad again, possibly acting as regent for her great-nephew, Edward II Count of Bar. Amid fears that John de Warenne would try to take Joan’s lands Edward III acted to guarantee them in her absence. By 1345, in one final attempt to dissolve his marriage John was claiming that he had had an affair before marrying Joan, with his wife’s maternal aunt Mary of Woodstock. This was indeed a drastic claim, as Mary had been a nun since she was about 7 years old, and was probably born out of desperation; John was getting increasingly infirm and still had no heir to succeed him. It was a last-ditch attempt to marry Isabella and have legitimate children.

It failed, however, and John died at Conisbrough Castle between 28th and 30th June 1347, aged 61. His will, written just before his death and dated 24th June 1347, left various gifts to Isabella and his illegitimate children – but nothing to Joan, his wife. Warenne left several illegitimate children, including at least 3 boys and 3 girls.

Joan de Bar was abroad when her husband died. She lived for another 14 years, retaining the title of Countess of Surrey until her death; Richard Fitzalan, John’s heir, took possession of the Warenne estates on John’s death, but didn’t use the title earl of Surrey until after Joan died. In the 1350s Joan is said to have often visited the French king, Jean II, who was a prisoner of Edward III  in London.

After a long and turbulent life, and at around 66 years of age, Joan died in London in 1361. Her body was conducted to France by her valet. She was buried at Sainte-Maxe Collegiate Church in Bar-le-Duc in October 1361.

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Pictures courtesy of Wikipedia

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Sources: The Oxford Companion to British History Edited by John Cannon; The Plantagenets, the Kings who Made England by Dan Jones; History Today Companion to British History Edited by Juliet Gardiner and Neil Wenborn;  Brewer’s British Royalty by David Williamson; Britain’s Royal Families, the Complete Genealogy by Alison Weir; Early Yorkshire Charters Volume 8, Edited by William Farrer and Charles Travis Clay; Conisbrough Castle by Steven Brindle and Agnieszka Sadraei; The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens by Mike Ashley; The Plantagenets, the Kings that made Britain by Derek Wilson; oxforddnb.com; royaldescent.net.

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My book, Heroines of the Medieval World,  is now available in hardback in the UK from both Amberley Publishing and Amazon UK and worldwide from Book Depository. It is also available on Kindle in both the UK and USA and will be available in Hardback from Amazon US from 1 May 2018.

Sharons book cover

Be the first to read new articles by clicking the ‘Follow’ button, liking our Facebook page or joining me on Twitter.

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©2016 Sharon Bennett Connolly

Book Corner: Steven A. McKay’s ‘The Forest Lord’ Series

CX0jE-zWcAEQNWnSteven A. McKay‘s The Forest Lord series of books is a wonderful, refreshing new take in the Robin Hood Legend. All the usual heroes are there, including Little John, Friar Tuck, Will Scarlet and Maid Marian, battling against their old enemies, the Sheriff of Nottingham and the despicable Sir Guy of Gisbourne.

However, what has changed is the time and location. Instead of the wilds of Sherwood Forest, The Forest Lord books are set in Barnsdale Forest in what is now West Yorkshire, while young Robin’s family lives in the nearby village of Wakefield. Gone also is the vile Prince John – and you won’t see King Richard the Lionheart either. The story is set in the time of Edward II, the rebellion of his cousin, Thomas of Lancaster providing the back-story to the first book; while the aftermath of Thomas’s defeat at the Battle of Boroughbridge is still being felt in the second book, The Wolf and the Raven, as the surviving rebels are hunted down.

1stWolf’s Head introduces you Robin as a newly outlawed teenager, finding refuge in a gang of outlaws in Barnsdale Forest. We follow Robin as the youth learns how to fight, how to deal with loss and how to lead men, while making mistakes and enemies along the way. As Robin and his companions, including a grieving Templar and his sergeant, become embroiled in the rebellion; they must find a way through the politics and the fighting to survive.

In The Wolf and the Raven, in the aftermath of a violent rebellion Robin Hood and his men must fight for survival with an enemy deadlier than any they’ve faced before. Sir Guy of Gisbourne, the king’s own bounty hunter, stalks the greenwood, bringing bloody justice to the outlaws and rebels who hide there.

While new friends, shattered loyalties, and a hate-fuelled hunter that threatens to wipe out not only Robin’s companions but his entire family all play a part in the Rise of the Wolf.

2Steven A. McKay has woven together a wonderful story of love, war, loyalty, hatred and a fight for survival set in one of the greatest periods of greed and unrest in English history. As a Yorkshire lass I can testify to the veracity of the author’s vivid depiction of the county and its people; although the landscape may have changed in 700 years, the Yorkshire spirit hasn’t.

The stories combine the fight for survival with the camaraderie of men who trust their lives to each other. There are tender moments, when Robin’s men put Marian’s freedom above their own desire for release from outlawry. There are moments of humour; such as when, in a bizarre twist, Edward II asks Robin and Little John to join his rowing team. And there are ‘yucky’ moments involving a castle toilet …. but I will not give away any more spoilers and ruin your enjoyment of a great story.

The characters are wonderfully vivid. While Robin is young and vulnerable, but develops into a strong, considerate leader, his nemesis Sir Guy of Gisbourne is suitably despicable and only gets worse. I have to say I like the Sheriff of Nottingham a little more than I have done in past depictions; the poor chap seems to have as many troubles on the right side of the law, as Robin has on the wrong side of it.

1Steven A. McKay has taken the Robin Hood legend expanded and enhanced it and made it his own. In case you were wondering, the traditional Robin Hood is still alive throughout the books, rescuing children and damsels and stealing from the rich; teaching them a lesson on the way.

The action is thrilling and you find yourself on the edge of your seat – or reading until the early hours – just hoping for it all to turn out right for our brave hero.

With the final instalment of the story still to come, the stage is set for one exciting, final fight for survival and victory in the green woods.

Will the boys finally get their one, over-riding desire – the chance to go home to their families and live as normal men? Will they all come through it alive? And does Gisbourne finally get  his comeuppance?

I can’t wait to find out.

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My book, Heroines of the Medieval World,  is now available in hardback in the UK from both Amberley Publishing and Amazon UK and worldwide from Book Depository. It is also available on Kindle in both the UK and USA and will be available in Hardback from Amazon US from 1 May 2018.

Be the first to read new articles by clicking the ‘Follow’ button, liking our Facebook page or joining me on Twitter.

©2016 Sharon Bennett Connolly