For the Sake of a Crown – the Marriage of John of Gaunt and Constance of Castile

Constança_de_Castela,_Duquesa_de_Lencastre_-_The_Portuguese_Genealogy_(Genealogia_dos_Reis_de_Portugal)
Constance of Castile

Constance of Castile was born in 1354 at Castro Kerez, Castile. Her father was Peter, or Pedro, king of Castile. Although he had earned himself the nickname of Peter the Cruel, he was also known as Peter the Just, depending on whether you were talking to his enemies, or his friends. In 1353 18-year-old Peter had married, in a secret ceremony, Maria de Padilla, who would bear him 4 children; of which Constance was the second oldest.

In the summer of the same year, a couple of months shy of his 19th birthday, on 3rd June, Peter had been practically coerced into marriage with 14-year-old Blanche de Bourbon, by his mother, Maria of Portugal, and his counsellors. Blanche was the daughter of Peter I, Duke of Bourbon, and Isabella de Valois; through her mother, Blanche was a cousin of the king of France. As a consequence of the marriage, Peter was forced to deny that a marriage ceremony with Maria ever took place. However, almost immediately after the wedding, Peter deserted his new bride and returned to Maria.

Blanche was imprisoned in the castle of Arevalo. Her cousin, Jean II, King of France, called for her release and asked the pope to excommunicate Peter for imprisoning her. The pope, Innocent VI, refused. Blanche was eventually moved to the town of Medina Sidonia, far remote from any possible rescue by Peter’s enemies from Aragon or France. It was at Medina Sidonia that Blanche died in 1361, though whether by murder or from natural causes is disputed (but that is a story for another time…).

Peter was married again, in 1354, to Juana de Castro, with whom he had a son, John. Despite the marriage, his relationship with Maria de Padilla endured. Peter and Maria were together until Maria’s death in 1361, probably from plague, and they had 3 daughters and a son. Although their son died young, their 3 daughters grew to adulthood. The eldest, Beatrice, entered the Abbey of Santa Clara at Tordesillas and so it would be Constance who eventually became her father’s heir.

Little is known of Constance’s childhood. She was around 7 when her mother died, her sister Isabella was a year younger and their baby brother, Alfonso was about 2. Alfonso would die in 1362.

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King Peter of Castile

Peter of Castile was engaged in constant wars with Aragon from 1356 to 1366, followed by the 1366 Castilian Civil War which saw him dethroned by his illegitimate half-brother, Henry of Trastamara.

Peter turned to his neighbours for help. He fled over the Pyrenees, to Aquitaine and England’s Prince of Wales, Edward the Black Prince. Peter brought his 2 daughters with him. The Black Prince agreed to mount an expedition to restore Peter to his throne, and would take his brother, John of Gaunt, along with him.

Constance and Isabella were handed over to the English as collateral against thee repayment of the costs of the expedition; a staggering £176,000 that Peter could never hope to repay.

In 1367 the Black Prince and John of Gaunt led an army across the Pyrenees, defeating Henry of Trastamara at the Battle of Najera, despite his being backed by the French. Trastamara fled Castile and Peter was restored to his throne, but could not repay the costs of the expedition. Unable to pay his army, and with his health in decline, the Black Prince left Spain for Aquitaine.

Peter was eventually murdered by Henry of Trastamara in March 1369; Henry usurped the throne as King Henry II, ignoring the rights of his niece Constance, who became ‘de jure’ Queen of Castile on 13th March 1369. However, Constance and her sister remained in English hands.

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The surrender of Santiago de Compostela to John of Gaunt, Constance of Castile is the lady on horseback

John of Gaunt’s wife of almost 10 years, Blanche Duchess of Lancaster, had died at Tutbury on 12th September, 1368, more likely from the complications of childbirth than from the plague. Shortly after John started a liaison with a woman who would be his mistress for the next 25 years, Katherine Swynford.

However, John of Gaunt was not done with his dynastic ambitions and saw in Constance of Castile the chance to gain his own crown. John and Constance were married, probably at Rocquefort, in Guyenne on 21st September 1371.

From 1372 John assumed the title King of Castile and Leon, by right of his wife. Crowds lined the streets when, as Queen of Castile, Constance was given a ceremonial entry into London in February 1372. Her brother-in-law, the Black Prince, escorted her through the city to be formally welcomed by her husband at his residence of the Savoy Palace.

Constance’s sister, Isabella, came with her, and would marry Constance’s brother-in-law Edmund of Langley, 5th son of Edward III, in July 1372.

Little is known of Constance’s relationship with her husband’s mistress, Katherine Swynford; except for an incident in June 1381. Amid the turmoil of the Peasant’s Revolt, John is said to have given up his mistress and reconciled with his wife, suggesting their relationship wasn’t all smooth. Katherine returned to  her manor in Lincolnshire where, it seems, John visited her from time to time.

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John of Gaunt

Constance was made a Lady of the Garter in 1378. Constance and John, King and Queen of Castile and Duke and Duchess of Lancaster, had 2 children. A son, John, was born in 1374 at Ghent in Flanders, but died the following year. Their daughter Catherine, or Catalina,  of Lancaster was born at Hertford Castle, sometime between June 1372 and March 1373. She would be made a Lady of the Garter in 1384.

John had several plans to recover his wife’s Castilian crown, but suffered from a lack of finances. Until 1386 when John I of Castile, son of Henry of Trastamara, attempted to claim the crown of Portugal. John of Avis, King of Portugal, turned to John of Gaunt for help. John saw this as his opportunity to overthrow John of Castile and claim the crown.

Having  landed in Galicia, however, John was unable to bring the Castilians to battle and his army succumbed to sickness. The opposing forces eventually agreed the Treaty of Bayonne, where in return for a substantial sum, John of Gaunt abandoned his claim to Castile. The treaty also saw a marriage alliance, between John of Castile’s son, Henry and Constance and John’s daughter, Catherine.

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Catherine of Lancaster

Catherine married Henry III of Castile in September 1388 at the Church if St Antolin, Fuentarrabia, Castile. Catherine therefore sat on the throne denied her mother. Catherine would have 3 children; 2 daughters, Katherine and Mary, and a son. Catherine and Henry’s son, John II, would succeed his father just a few months after his birth, with Catherine having some limited say in the Regency, and custody of her son until he was around 10. She died on the 2nd June 1418 and is buried in Toledo, Spain. Her great-granddaughter, Catherine of Aragon, would marry Henry VIII of England.

She died on the 24th March 1394 at Leicester Castle and was buried at Newark Abbey in Leicester, far away from her Castilian homeland. Just 2 years later her widower would marry his long-time mistress, Katherine Swynford. When he died in 1399, however, John of Gaunt chose to be buried beside his 1st wife, Blanche of Lancaster.

It’s hard to imagine that Constance was happy with her husband’s living arrangements, a belief highlighted by the 1381 reconciliation. It cannot have been easy, being at the centre of a love story that was not her own. John of Gaunt had offered Constance the chance to be a part of the English royal family, and to recover her crown. Although he failed in his personal ambition, John of Gaunt did manage to secure the crown for Constance’s descendants, through their daughter Catherine and grandson, John II of Castile.

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Pictures taken from Wikipedia.

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Sources: The Perfect King, the Life of Edward III by Ian Mortimer; The Life and Time of Edward III by Paul Johnson; The Reign of Edward III  by WM Ormrod; The Mammoth Book of British kings & Queens by Mike Ashley; Britain’s’ Royal Families, the Complete Genealogy by Alison Weir; Brewer’s British Royalty by David Williamson; The Plantagenets, the Kings Who Made Britain by Dan Jones; englishmonarchs.co.uk; The Oxford Companion to British History edited by John Cannon; Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry Edited by Elizabeth Hallam.

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34 thoughts on “For the Sake of a Crown – the Marriage of John of Gaunt and Constance of Castile

  1. evelynralph 24/03/2016 / 11:14

    Reblogged this on evelynralph and commented:
    What a tangled web, more so than one would think be looking up our kings. So many involved marriages.

    Like

    • Sharon Bennett Connolly 24/03/2016 / 11:17

      Absolutely Evelyn – researching one always leads to more. It’s such fun. And makes history even more interesting. 🙂 Thanks you for reblogging. best wishes, Sharon

      Like

  2. nmayer2015 24/03/2016 / 11:53

    I found this interesting even though it is not a period of history in which I usually take much interest. There are so many wonderful and interesting stories of people one can never learn them all – I didn’t know this bit about John of Gaunt .

    Like

  3. suzantimreedsuzieduck 25/03/2016 / 06:19

    Thank you so much for this info. John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford are my most favorite people in all of Plantaganet history! This little blog indeed was interesting to read, especially when I learned that Catherine of Castile was Katherine of Aragon’s great-grandmother. Katherine herself is another favorite, simply because of what she had to endure with Henry VIII.

    I so enjoy all your blurbs, and eagerly look forward to each one. Thank you for doing what you do for making me happy.

    Like

    • Sharon Bennett Connolly 25/03/2016 / 06:36

      Thank you so much for your lovely comments. I’m so glad you like the blog. Best wishes, Sharon 🙂

      Like

  4. April Munday 11/02/2017 / 16:47

    John of Gaunt was certainly someone who’s ambition exceeded his ability. It must have been very difficult being the son of Edward III and the brother of the Black Prince and knowing that you came out the worst in any comparison with them.

    Like

      • April Munday 11/02/2017 / 18:35

        Well, the Black Prince was far from perfect, but he knew how to fight a war and how to get men to follow him, but John seemed to lack those skills. He was desperately unpopular in England, especially after his brother’s death.

        Like

      • Sharon Bennett Connolly 12/02/2017 / 10:53

        I think John became the focus of discontent for everyone not happy with the government. I’m not sure it was all John’s fault, but his relationship with Katherine Swynford really upset people and he ended up taking the blame for everything; England had been at war with France for decades and the dreadful effects of the Black Death can’t have helped either. John was the visible and active member of the royal family – and so took the brunt of the backlash.

        Liked by 1 person

      • April Munday 12/02/2017 / 11:05

        He did little to make himself popular. He wasn’t content with being the largest landholder in England and uncle to the king. He wanted to be king and he wasn’t that fussy where he was king of. That would have made him unpopular in a country which had developed a sense of being a great nation over the previous decades. John of Gaunt was as arrogant as Edward III, but doesn’t seem to have had his father’s ability to win men to his side.

        Like

      • Sharon Bennett Connolly 12/02/2017 / 11:33

        True, but then you do tend to find that the sons of great kings and great men disappoint more often than not. You just have to look at Edward I and II, and Henry V and Henry VI.

        Liked by 1 person

      • April Munday 12/02/2017 / 11:39

        Indeed, although I think Henry VI was just mad, like his grandfather. I often wonder what sort of king the Black Prince would have made and, in my heart of hearts, I suspect he would have been found wanting.

        Like

      • Sharon Bennett Connolly 12/02/2017 / 11:45

        Absolutely. He was very heavy-handed when he ruled Aquitaine, and upset a lot of the locals. I’ve got a feeling he would have done the same in England – but would he have been any worse than Richard II? 🙂

        Liked by 1 person

      • April Munday 12/02/2017 / 12:05

        I don’t think so. He did have something about him that inclined the people around him to loyalty, at least before he became ill.

        Like

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