Isabel de Warenne, Countess of Surrey

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Seal of Isabel de Warenne, Conisbrough Castle

Isabel de Warenne was the only surviving child of William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Warenne and Surrey, and his wife Adela, or Ela, de Talvas, daughter of William III of Ponthieu. When her father died on the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, in around 1148, Isabel became 4th Countess of Surrey and one of the most prized heiresses in England and Normandy, with large estates in Yorkshire.

Isabel was born during a period of civil war in England, a time known as The Anarchy (c.1135-54), when King Stephen fought against Empress Matilda, the daughter of Henry I, for the right to rule England. Isabel’s father, William, was a staunch supporter of the king and had fought at the Battle of Lincoln in February 1141, though without distinction; his men were routed early on in the battle and William was among a number of earls who fled the field. He later redeemed himself that summer by capturing Empress Matilda’s brother and senior general, Robert Earl of Gloucester, at Winchester.

The earl appears to have tired of the civil war in 1147 and departed on Crusade with his half-brother, Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan, and their cousin, King Louis VII of France. In the same year, as part of King Stephen’s attempts to control the vast de Warenne lands during a crucial time in the Anarchy, Earl Warenne’s only daughter, Isabel, was married to Stephen’s younger son, William of Blois, who would become Earl by right of his wife, following the 3rd earl’s death on Crusade in 1148; he was killed fighting in the doomed rearguard at the Battle of Mount Cadmus near Laodicea in January 1148.

Lewes Priory

It has been suggested that William of Blois was some 7 or 8 years younger than his wife, Isabel. However, this seems improbable and it appears more likely that the young couple were of similar ages. Isabel’s father had been born in 1119 and was no older than 29 when he died; his wife, Ela de Talvas, was a few years younger than her husband. This means that, even if the couple married as soon as they reached the ages allowed by the church to marry, 12 for a girl and 14 for a boy, and Ela fell pregnant on her wedding night, Isabel could have been no older 13 in 1147. Given the danger associated with girls giving birth before their teens, it seems plausible that Isabel was not born until the late 1130s and may have been between 10 and 12, or younger when she married William of Blois.

Even before it was known that Earl Warenne had died on crusade, William of Blois was already being referred to as earl in a number of charters relating to Warenne lands, one such charter, dated to c.1148, was issued with the proviso ‘that if God should bring back the earl [from the crusade] he would do his best to obtain the earl’s confirmation, or otherwise that of his lord earl William, the king’s son.’1

During the 3rd earl’s absence, and while the new earl and countess were still only children, the vast Warenne lands were administered by the 3rd earl’s youngest brother, Reginald de Warenne, Baron Wormegay, who was a renowned and accomplished administrator and estate manager. We do not know when news reached England of the earl’s death, the tidings may have arrived before the return of the earl’s half-brother, Waleran, later in the year. However, the future of the earldom was already secure with the succession of Isabel and her young husband, carefully watched over by Isabel’s uncle, Reginald.

In 1154 the young couple’s future prospects could have changed drastically when William’s elder brother Eustace, their father’s heir, died. As a consequence, William inherited his mother’s County of Boulogne from his brother, adding to his already substantial domains. He may also have expected to inherit his brother’s position as heir to the throne – or not. It seems that William’s ambitions did not extend to the lofty heights of the throne, or he was not considered suitable for the crown. Either way, the young man was removed from the succession to the crown by his own father, when Stephen made a deal with Empress Matilda’s son, Henry of Anjou, that the crown would go to him on Stephen’s death, thus returning the crown to the rightful line of succession.

William seems to have accepted this, on the whole. Although there is some suggestion of his involvement in a plot against Henry later in 1154, during which William suffered a broken leg, he served Henry loyally, once he became king, until his own death, returning from the king’s campaign in Toulouse, in 1159.

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The Warenne coat of arms

Now in her mid-20s, and as their marriage had been childless, Isabel was once again a prize heiress. Although she seems to have had a little respite from the marriage market, by 1162 Henry II’s youngest brother, William X, Count of Poitou, was seeking a dispensation to marry her. The dispensation was refused by Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the grounds of consanguinity; the archbishop’s objection was not that Isabel and William were too closely related, but that William and Isabel’s first husband had been cousins. William died shortly after the archbishop refused to sanction the marriage – it is said, of a broken heart.

King Henry was not to be thwarted so easily in his plans to bring the Warenne lands into the royal family, and his illegitimate half-brother, Hamelin, was married to Isabel in 1164. Hamelin was the son of Herny’s father, Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, and an unknown woman, born around 1130, in the time when Geoffrey and Empress Matilda were estranged. In an unusual step, Hamelin took his wife’s surname and bore the titles Earl of Warenne and Surrey in her right.

The marriage appears to have been highly successful. Hamelin was loyal to his brother and his nephew, Richard I, and played a prominent part in English politics whilst Richard was absent on the 3rd Crusade. He also built the highly innovative keep at Conisbrough in the 1170s and 1180s.

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The keep at Conisbrough Castle

Isabel and Hamelin had four surviving children. Their son and heir, William, would become the 5th Earl of Surrey and married Maud Marshal, daughter of the great William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke and regent for King Henry III. There were also three daughters, Ela, Isabel and Matilda, however it has been suggested that Matilda was Hamelin’s daughter by a previous relationship, but this theory is based on an erroneous death date for her husband. One of the daughters – although it is not clear which – bore an illegitimate son, Richard Fitzroy, by her cousin, John (the future King John).

Isabel died in her mid-60s, in 1203, and was buried at Lewes Priory, alongside Hamelin, who had died the previous year. In 1202, Countess Isabel had granted ‘for the soul of her husband earl Hamelin, to the priory of St Katherine, Lincoln, of similar easements for 60 beasts, namely for 40 as of his gift and 20 as of hers.’2

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Footnotes: 1 Farrer, William and Charles Travis Clay, editors, Early Yorkshire Charters, Volume 8: The Honour of Warenne; 2 ibid

Sources: Robert Batlett, England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings; Dan Jones, The Plantagenets; Donald Matthew, King Stephen; Medieval Lands Project on the Earls of Surrey, Conisbrough Castle; Farrer, William and Charles Travis Clay, editors, Early Yorkshire Charters, Volume 8: The Honour of Warenne; Morris, Marc King John: Treachery, Tyranny and the Road to Magna Carta; Church, Stephen, King John: England, Magna Carta and the Making of a Tyrant; doncasterhistory.co.uk

Photos: The de Warenne coat of arms taken from Wikipedia. Consibrough Castle, Lewes Priory and the seal of Isabel de Warenne © Sharon Bennett Connolly 2015.

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The story of Isabel and her family appears in my latest book, Ladies of Magna Cart: Women of History in Thirteenth Century England.

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My Books

Ladies of Magna Carta: Women of Influence in Thirteenth Century England  looks into the relationships of the various noble families of the 13th century, and how they were affected by the Barons’ Wars, Magna Carta and its aftermath; the bonds that were formed and those that were broken. It is now available from Pen & SwordAmazon and from Book Depository worldwide.

Also by Sharon Bennett Connolly:

Silk and the Sword: The Women of the Norman Conquest traces the fortunes of the women who had a significant role to play in the momentous events of 1066.  Available now from Amazon,  Amberley Publishing, Book Depository.

Heroines of the Medieval World tells the stories of some of the most remarkable women from Medieval history, from Eleanor of Aquitaine to Julian of Norwich. Available now from Amberley Publishing and Amazon and Book Depository.

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Article: © Sharon Bennett Connolly 2020

29 thoughts on “Isabel de Warenne, Countess of Surrey

  1. karrrie49 10/01/2015 / 14:00

    I’m ashamed to say I hadn’t really heard of this lady..so thanks Sharon what was your draw to her life ? Anything in particular?

    Like

    • Sharon Bennett Connolly 10/01/2015 / 15:03

      I used to give guided tours at Conisbrough Castle, Karrie – the castle that Isabel and Hamelin built in South Yorkshire. At the time I hadn’t realised how closely-related they were to the crown.

      Like

  2. Travis Warren 04/02/2015 / 18:27

    This is my 26th Great Grandmother. If you have any other information about her, I would love to know and if you have any pics, I would like to see that also. Thanks

    Like

    • Sharon Bennett Connolly 04/02/2015 / 19:49

      I couldn’t find any pictures anywhere, I’m afraid, Travis. If you live in England, I’d recommend a visit to Conisbrough Castle. They have a wonderful display about Isabel and Hamelin, and the building of the castle. You would love it, being able to stand in a building that your 26th great grandmother actually lived in would be truly something. If I do find any more information about her, I’ll certainly let you know. Best wishes, Sharon.

      Like

    • Memory Scott 14/07/2015 / 00:30

      Travis Warren, Isabel is also in my family line…my 26th great grandmother. I’ve done a lot of internet resa. on her and am compiling all I can. You can find me on Facebook if you want to connect so we can share.

      Like

    • Lois Post 14/08/2016 / 19:48

      Travis, any idea if the Mayflower Warren is from her line, too? My husband is one of his descendants.

      Like

      • Bill 11/12/2016 / 03:57

        The Warren’s and Plantagenets crossed paths with Isabelle and Hamelin. Both lines were direct descendants of Charlemagne, and King David (David and Goliath).
        Why Hamelin was illegit to the throne is perplexing.
        “Mayflower Warrens” would be Arthur, and/or Richard.
        Seems Richard was more documented with leaving England and arriving in Massachusetts. Arthur only arrived in Massachusetts. May be due to plague and Three Kingdoms wars. I found an Arthur High Sheriff of Notts who had a son Arthur and Richard and a daughter Abigail.
        Seems Warrens of Virginia are also related through Sir Lawrence of Stockport DeWarenne (1500s), a common ancestor found through DNA.
        The Warren motto “Leo de Juda est robur nostrum” (The Lion of Judah is our strength) has legends in Knights Hospitallers, and DNA with Eastern Middle East origins.
        And thats wut I know…

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      • Sharon Bennett Connolly 12/12/2016 / 10:44

        Hi Bill,
        Although Hamelin and Isabel’s descent from Charlemagne is understandable, I’m always dubious about claims for descent from King David. I have to say, I haven’t come across such a claim in my research, although it was a medieval ruse, at times, to claim descent from biblical kings, in order to give a family legitimacy. There is, of course, no way of proving it – the genealogies just were not done, or if they were, they were not meticulous enough to be given credence.
        As to Hamelin’s illegitimacy, he had no claim to the English throne, he was a son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, by an unknown woman who was not his wife, not Empress Matilda, from whom Henry II held his claim.
        Best wishes
        Sharon

        Like

  3. Lynne Carroll 10/01/2016 / 17:16

    As a newcomer to your blog, I have been pleased to read so far two articles that have made me want to find out more about the people you mention. You certainly have a way with words that is both interesting and with a sense of ‘sharing’ rather than lecturing. This article was fascinating as I’d never really known much about Isabel and Hamelin -it was very heartwarming to read that they both survived into ripe old age together! Looking forward to reading the rest of your articles and thank you for all the time and effort you must have given to make this blog so fascinating.

    Like

    • Sharon Bennett Connolly 10/01/2016 / 17:22

      Thank you so much Lynne for such wonderful comments, and for taking the time to write. You’ve made my day. I’m really glad you found the post so interesting. Thank you. Sharon 🙂

      Like

  4. Linda Alcott Maples 04/05/2016 / 03:13

    Sharon, great blog! I’m researching a possible line to Edward FitzRandolph of MA and NJ who is a descendant of Isabel de Warenne and Hameline Plantagenet (Mr. Isabel de Warenne).
    Just wondering if Isabel’s father or grandfather, William, was the William de Warenne who was a companion of William the Conqueror? Now for more of your fascinating reads.
    Linda in USA

    Like

    • Sharon Bennett Connolly 04/05/2016 / 10:57

      Hi Linda, yes, Isabel was the great-granddaughter of the 1st Earl, who came over to England with William the Conqueror’s army. Sharon 🙂

      Like

  5. KTC 20/03/2017 / 14:59

    Thank you for this post about Isabel de Warenne (my 25th great-grandmother). I really enjoyed reading this!

    Like

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